Boris Paternu                UDK: 821.163.6.09Linhart A.T.

 

Linhartovo mesto v prebuji individualnega in nacionalnega subjekta

A. T. Linhart (1756–1795), ki je še mlad izstopil iz samostana in se odločil za razsvetljensko filozofijo življenja, je med Slovenci prvi izoblikoval literarno podobo svobodnega individualnega subjekta. To je storil v svoji prvi, dunajski nemško-kozmopolitski fazi pisanja 1778–1780, navezujoč se na literarne modele od baroka do predromantike in njihove podobe razklanih, notranje destabiliziranih oseb. Sem sodita Linhartova pesniška zbirka Blumen aus Krain in tragedija Miss Jenny Love. Po vrnitvi v Ljubljano 1780, ko se je intenzivno vključil v slovensko razsvetljensko orientirano narodno prebudno gibanje, je svojo pozornost obrnil od individualnega k narodnemu subjektu. V letih 1789–1790 je v dveh odličnih komedijah Županova Micka ( prirejena po J. Richterju) in Ta veseli dan ali Matiček se ženi (prirejena po Beaumarchiasevem Figaroju) pri oblikovanju oseb in dogajanja prišel do organskega spoja človeško osebnega s skupnostnim. Z učinkovito sociopsihološko in jezikovnostilno individualizacijo je v slovenski književnosti prvi dosegel raven literarno razvite dramatike. Zunanja pobuda k tej Linhartovi kreativni sproščenosti in ob njej družbeni kritičnosti je bil prodor idej francoske revolucije v domače časopisje septembra 1789 z objavo Deklaracije o pravicah človeka in državljana, ki jo je sprejela francoska narodna skupščina.
V Linhartovem mišljenju pa obstajajo tudi že nekateri znaki krize oz. notranje aporije razsvetljenstva. Zato lahko njegov opus danes opazujemo z obeh med seboj čisto nasprotnih sodobnih pojmovanj razsvetljenstva: s Cassirerjevega (apologetskega) in M. Horkheimer- Th.Adornovega (kritičnega).

 

akademik prof. dr. Boris Paternu,
SI, Ljubljana, Videmska 5, literarni zgodovinar in teoretik
e-naslov: pirjevec.paternu@gmail.com

 

Boris Paternu

 

Linhart's Town in the Awakening of the Individual and National Subject

A.T. Linhart (1756–1795), who, while still young, abandoned monastic life and decided on an enlightened philosophy of life, was the first Slovene to create a literary image of a free individual subject. He did this in his first, Viennese German-cosmopolitan phase of writing 1778-1780, connected with literary models from the Baroque to the pre-Romantic and their images of divided, internally destabilised persons. Here belong Linhart's collection of poetry Blumen aus Krain and the tragedy Miss Jenny Love. After his return to Ljubljana in 1780, when he became intensively involved in the Slovene enlightenment oriented national awakening movement, he turned his attention from the individual to the national subject. In 1789-1790, in two excellent comedies, Županova Micka (arranged by J. Richter) and Ta veseli dan ali Matiček se ženi (arranged on the basis of Beaumarchia's Figaro) he came to an organic fusion of human personality with the community in the creation of the cast and events. Through his effective socio-psychological and linguistic individualisation, he first achieved in Slovene literature the level of a literary developed dramatist. The external encouragement for this relaxed creativity of Linhart, together with social criticism, was the appearance of the ideas of the French Revolution in domestic newspapers in September 1789 with the publication of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens, which had been adopted by the French National Assembly.
In Linhart's thinking, though, there are also some of the signs of crisis or internally unresolvable questions of the Enlightenment. His opus today, therefore, can be seen through both of the two completely contrasting contemporary notions of the enlightenment: Cassir's (apologetic) and that of M. Horkheimer – Th. Adorno (critical).

 

Academician Prof. Dr. Boris Paternu,
SI, Ljubljana, Videmska 5, literary historian and theoretician
e-naslov: pirjevec.paternu@gmail.com