Nika Leben                    UDK: 728.84(497.4Kranj)”18/19”

 

Najstarejša vilska četrt v Kranju in stavbenik Josef Fuso

Mesto Kranj dobi prvi regulacijski načrt, ki je predvidel gradnjo strnjenih blokov v Kokriškem predmestju, leta 1913. Že takoj po sprejetju so ga močno kritizirali in ni bil nikoli realiziran, saj so meščani − obrtniki in manjši trgovci želeli ven iz srednjeveških hiš, čeprav jim status ni dovoljeval premožnejših bivališč. Prve vile so zgradili razmeroma daleč od mestnega središča vzdolž na novo začrtane Kokriške ceste, (kasneje imenovane tudi Jezerska cesta, sedaj ulica Staneta Žagarja), konec 19. in v začetku 20. st., njihova gradnja pa je povezana s stavbenikom Josefom Fusom, roj. 1859 v Moggio Udinese – slov. Možacu v Italiji, ki je odločilno zaznamoval kranjsko arhitekturo v tem času. Fuso se je po 24 letih dela na Koroškem in Štajerskem ter na Kranjskem ustalil v Kranju, kjer je do prve svetovne vojne skoraj v celoti obvladoval gradbeno dejavnost. Stilno prevladuje historicizem z redkimi elementi secesije, ki se zaradi močnega vpliva konservativnega Fusovega eklekticizma uveljavi pozno in v manjšem obsegu kot drugod na Gorenjskem. Žal so njegovo najimenitnejšo vilo, v kateri se je secesija najbolj izrazito uveljavila, prezidali pred drugo svetovno vojno. Sočasno je nastala tudi vilska četrt ob današnji Vrtni ulici, vendar so bile tu v skladu s socialnim položajem lastnikov stavbe skromnejše. Po prvi svetovni vojni z gradnjo vil nadaljujejo vzdolž Jezerske ceste in okoli Vrtne ulice v stilu zmernega modernizma, intenzivni razvoj pa dokončno ustavi druga svetovna vojna. Individualno gradnjo nadomestijo večstanovanjski bloki, ki se vrivajo v vilsko četrt s severne strani, strnjen niz pa prekine tudi gradnja večjih poslovnih stavb Glasa in sodišča. Kljub urbanistično nesprejemljivim potezam v zadnji tretjini 20. st. pa je najstarejša vilska četrt uspela ohraniti značaj primestne vrtne arhitekture, vredne, da se ohrani in preuči tudi s kulturnozgodovinskega vidika. Vedenje o stavbeniku Fusu naj bi bil drobec k osvetlitvi tega ustvarjalnega obdobja.

 

mag. Nika Leben, univ. dipl. um. zgod. in etnologinja
SI, Kranj, Lojzeta Hrvata 9, konservatorska svetnica
e-naslov: nika.leben@zvkds.si ; nika.leben@gmail.com

 

 

Nika Leben

The Oldest Villa Quarter in Kranj and the Builder Josef Fuso

The town of Kranj obtained its first urban plan, which envisaged the construction of dense blocks of flats in the Kokra suburb, in 1913. It was already strongly criticised immediately after its adoption and was never realised, since citizens – small businessmen and merchants - wanted to leave the medieval houses although their status did not allow luxurious residences. The first villas were built relatively far from the town centre, along the newly planned Kokriška cesta (later also called Jezerska cesta, now Ulica Staneta Žagarja) at the end of the 19th and start of the 20th century, and their construction was linked with the builder, Josef Fuso, born in 1859 in Moggio Udinese (Možac in Slovene) in Italy, who made a decisive mark on Kranj architecture at that time. After 24 years working in Carinthia/Koroška, Styria/Štajerska and Carniola, he remained in Kranj, where he almost in entirety controlled construction activities until the First World War. Stylistically, Historicism with occasional elements of Secession prevails, which, because of the powerful influence of Fuso's conservative eclecticism, was introduced late and to a lesser extent than elsewhere in Gorenjska. Unfortunately, his most eminent villa, in which he introduced Secession most explicitly, was reconstructed before the Second World War. At the same time, he also created a villa quarter beside today's Vrtna ulica, although here, in line with the social position of the owners, the buildings are more modest. After the First World War, the building of villas continued along Jezerska cesta and around Vrtna ulica, in the style of moderate modernism, and intensive development was finally halted by the Second World War. Individual housing was replaced by multi-residential blocks, which are squeezed into the villa quarter from the northern side, and the concentrated series is also broken by the construction of the major business buildings of Glas and the court. Despite the urbanistically unacceptable traits in the last third of the 20th century, the oldest villa quarter has managed to retain the character of urban architecture with gardens, worthy of being preserved and studied also from the cultural history aspect. Knowledge of the builder Fuso is intended to be a fragment towards shedding light on this creative period.


Nika Leben, MA, (art history and ethnology)
SI, Kranj, Lojzeta Hrvata 9, conservation adviser
e-naslov: nika.leben@zvkds.si ; nika.leben@gmail.com